The word linen comes from the Latin name for flax. [32], In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, linen was very significant to Russia and its economy. Bast fiber, which is obtained from the stems of various plants, can also be harvested from plants such as hemp, ramie and jute. For example, a yarn having a size of 1 lea will give 300 yards per pound. In the United States cotton is popularly used instead, as linen is many times more expensive there, restricting its use to professional painters. Linen is an ancient fiber. [11] It was used mainly by the wealthier class of the society, including priests. Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. 5263 bast fibres from the core and converting these fibres into individual fibres. A Missed Opportunity to Learn from Failure, Tips For Looking After Organic Cotton Clothes. [7][8], Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics, including linen samples, dating to about 8,000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Today, linen is usually an expensive textile produced in relatively small quantities. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. Then the shaped dough is placed on the couche. We start with the seeds of dicotyledon plants - a family of plants containing Bast Fibres - Hemp, Linen, Jute, Kenaf. [14] Plutarch wrote that the priests of Isis also wore linen because of its purity. In a process called rippling, a machine removes the seeds. This is particularly important for hemp, whose fruits are used as drugs … Douglas Harper, Historian. Revitalizing Regional Fiber Flax . [citation needed] For example, the Tarkhan dress, considered to be among the oldest woven garments in the world and dated to between 3482 and 3102 BC, is made of linen. The fibers are obtained from the plant in the form of long filaments, each of which is made up of cells. This region has the history and capacity to grow the same high-quality flax (linen) and hemp fiber available in current markets. Linen is the best known of the bast fibers and is derived from the flax plant, which is harvested when it turns light brown. The bast fibers are gained from the vegetative part of the plant: stems of flax, linen or hemp plants. Ramie is another common bast fiber. Linen fabric feels cool to touch, a phenomenon which indicates its higher conductivity (the same principle that makes metals feel "cold"). [37][full citation needed] Others explain that it is because God often forbids mixtures of disparate kinds, not designed by God to be compatible in a certain way, with mixing animal and vegetable fibers being similar to having two different types of plowing animals yoked together; also, such commands serve both a practical as well as allegorical purpose, perhaps here preventing a priestly garment that would cause discomfort (or excessive sweat) in a hot climate. [39] It was once the preferred yarn for hand-sewing the uppers of moccasin-style shoes (loafers), but has been replaced by synthetics. Currently researchers are working on a cotton/flax blend to create new yarns which will improve the feel of denim during hot and humid weather. Bamboo is often advertised as a more sustainable fabric, but this is not necessarily the case. [31] Through the 1830s, most farmers in the northern United States continued to grow flax for linen to be used for the family's clothing. [9], Woven flax textile fragments have been "found between infant and child" in a burial at Çatalhöyük, a large settlement dating to around 7,000 BC. 19:19. lining. Known as a couche, the flax cloth is used to hold the dough into shape while in the final rise, just before baking. Linen is a bast fiber. [citation needed] Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. The collective term "linens" is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. The word linen comes from the Latin word for flax, linum. Then ridges are formed in the couche to keep the dough from spreading. There is no explanation for this in the Torah itself and it is categorized as a type of law known as chukim, a statute beyond man's ability to comprehend. To preserve the length of the fiber, the entire flax plant is pulled up. [41] Conversely, some brands such as 100% Capri specially treat the linen to look like denim.[42]. Flax is planted in spring. Linen is a bast fiber, meaning it is obtained from the stem of a plant – in this case, the flax plant. The composition of linen is cellulose. Linen is a bast fiber, meaning it is obtained from the stem of a plant – in this case, the flax plant. ", "Linen Fiber and Linen Fabrics from the Flax Plants",, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with incomplete citations from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 03:11. This is the number of 840 yard lengths in a pound. Linen can degrade in a few weeks when buried in soil. There are also chemical retting methods; these are faster, but are typically more harmful to the environment and to the fibers themselves. The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments (as for example dress jackets) was traditionally made of linen, hence the word lining.[40]. However, in the case of many present-day linen fabrics, particularly in the decorative furnishing industry, slubs are considered as part of the aesthetic appeal of an expensive natural product. Spun flax fiber, or fabric made from this fiber, is called linen, a natural fabric used for more than 5000 years, longer than cotton or wool. Many products can be made with linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimming, bath, beach, body and wash towels), napkins, bed linens, tablecloths, runners, chair covers, and men's and women's wear. View reliable Bast Fiber Fabric manufacturers on The harvested flax is then left in bundles in the field for a few weeks. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. Linen is very strong and absorbent and dries faster than cotton. Linen is a textile made from hairs of the flax plant. [24], Linen continued to be valued for garments in the 16th century[25] and beyond. Linen fiber is a cellulose fiber derived from the flax plant trunk. What an interesting bit of history! The term “linen” is often misused, being applied to fabrics that simply look like linen, or being used as a general term for sheets, towels, and tablecloths. It has been found in ancient tombs and was used in burial shrouds for Egyptian pharaohs. In the past, slubs were traditionally considered to be defects, and were associated with low-quality linen. In the past, linen was also used for books (the only surviving example of which is the Liber Linteus). Several grades were produced including coarse lockram. Such fibres, usually characterized by fineness and flexibility, are also known as “soft” fibres, distinguishing them from the coarser, less flexible fibres of the leaf, or “hard,” fibre group. Over the past 30 years the end use for linen has changed dramatically. Tahir et al. Flax. [9], In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres in order to raise people's awareness of linen and other natural fibers. Aside from linen, a few other fabrics made from bast fibers include hemp, ramie, and rattan. Linen is another bast fiber made from the stalk of flax plants. Next the fibers are heckled: the short fibers are separated with heckling combs by 'combing' them away, to leave behind only the long, soft flax fibers. It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat. In ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds. Linen uses range across bed and bath fabrics (tablecloths, bath towels, dish towels, bed sheets); home and commercial furnishing items (wallpaper/wall coverings, upholstery, window treatments); apparel items (suits, dresses, skirts, shirts); and industrial products (luggage, canvases, sewing thread). The symbol is NeL. Bast fibers are fibers collected from the phloem, or the inner-bark of the plant. These fibers are annually renewable crops that come off of the stalks rather than the leaves and grow in 90 to 100 days. Linen fibres, like other bast fibres, are obtained from the phloem, or inner bark (or skin) of a plant. Apparel made of linen is usually designed for warm weather use, high fashion aspects, or professional wear. Flax fibers can usually be identified by their “nodes” which add to the flexibility and texture of the fabric. [38][full citation needed]. It is strong yet comfortable to wear in warm weather. It can withstand high temperatures, and has only moderate initial shrinkage.[45]. [30] The homespun movement encouraged the use of flax to make home spun textiles. The trade spread throughout Germany by the 9th century and spread to Flanders and Brabant by the 11th century. The flax plants we use are grown in Belgium and require little or no irrigation, pesticides or fertilizers. Linen was used in ancient civilizations including Mesopotamia[2] and ancient Egypt, and linen is mentioned in the Bible. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads. In linen’s case, that’s the flax plant. University of Minnesota, 2003, "Profiles of 15 of the world's major plant and animal fibres", "Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax", Flax and Linen Textiles in the Mycenaean palatial economy, "Flax to Fabric: The Story of Irish Linen", "The Development of Textile Technology: Inside the TextilTechnikum (Textile Technology Center) in Monforts Quartier, Mönchengladbach", "Background history of Linen from the flax in the field to finished linen cloth", "What Is Linen? It is so often used for bed coverings that we call them simply – linens. The linen industry was increasingly critical in the economies of Europe[28][29] in the 18th and 19th centuries. The earliest evidence of its use is 30,000 years ago in its wild form, and … Linen yarn is woven from the long fibers found behind the bark in a multi-layered stalk of the flax plant. At one time it was the country's greatest export item and Russia produced about 80% of the world's fiber flax crop. [22] Evidence suggests that flax may have been grown and sold in Southern England in the 12th and 13th centuries. Bast, also known as phloem fiber, is produced from the inner bark, or bast, portion of the stem of certain plants. [23], Textiles, primarily linen and wool, were produced in decentralized home weaving mills. Consequently the quality parameters for these fibers are developed before the harvest of the fruits. Because of its strength when wet, Irish linen is a very popular wrap of pool/billiard cues, due to its absorption of sweat from hands. Linen is also used extensively by artisan bakers. However, the very finest linen has very consistent diameter threads, with no slubs at all. It is also etymologically related to a number of other terms, including lining, because linen was often used to create an inner layer for clothing,[4] and lingerie, from French, which originally denoted underwear made of linen. [6], The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Southeastern Europe (present-day Georgia) dated to 36,000 years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared with modern linen. Flax is the oldest fiber on record, first grown by the Egyptians having along the banks of the Nile. New York, NY: Facts On File, 1990. The thin cambium layer lies between these regions. Linen is preferred to cotton for its strength, durability and archival integrity. "[For context], with the exception of linen, bast fibers are typically used for rugs, ropes, and other applications where strength and durability are key." Coir or Coconut Fiber – the natural, seed fiber, Hair Fibers alpaca, llama, cashmere, mohair, camel, Distribution of Grade or Wool Fiber Diameter, Study on application of reduced Graphene Oxide on cotton…, Micro-encapsulation/Odor Control and Stain resistant…, 13 Questions To Ask While Choosing The Perfect Winter…, How to Choose a Sewing Machine: Top Tips for a Newbie…, Importance of Air Permeability/Fabric porous structure in…, Removing the Fabric from Schiffli Embroidery Machine, Weeding Out Negatives and Implementing Positives, Narrow Fabrics – tapes, braids, and webbings. Linen is made from the fibres of the stem of the flax plant, and belongs to a group of natural cellulose fibres known as bast fibres. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line, from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line. Linen's poor elasticity means that it easily wrinkles. Linen fabric is one of the preferred traditional supports for oil painting. Scutching removes the woody portion of the stalks by crushing them between two metal rollers, so that the parts of the stalk can be separated. Cotton fibers come from the seed pod of the plant and are not bast fibers although cotton is also cellulose.) The answer to your question is yes hemp and flax are processed the same way. Textile Bast Fiber Fabric Linen & Flax Fabric (3,422) Ramie Fabric (607) Jute Fabric (352) Other Bast Fiber Fabrics (327) Hemp Fabric (218) Certification Oeko-Tex Standard 100 (1,249) Intertek Eco-Certification (735) Weight This is the number of 1,000 m lengths per kilogram. Linen fabric is made from the cellulose fibers that grow inside of the stalks of the flax plant, or Linum usitatissimum, one of the oldest cultivated plants in human history. Linen is especially popular for suits worn in tropical climates. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. They brought improved methods for linen production with them, contributing to the growth of the linen industry in Ireland in particular. Linen is relatively easy to take care of, since it resists dirt and stains, has no lint or pilling tendency, and can be dry-cleaned, machine-washed, or steamed. This length makes linen fabric strong and smooth. Bast fibre, soft, woody fibre obtained from stems of dicotyledonous plants (flowering plants with net-veined leaves) and used for textiles and cordage. [citation needed] The Living Linen Project was set up in 1995 as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, which was at that time still available within a nucleus of people who formerly worked in the industry in Ulster. Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp. Excellent strength gains strength when wet, Hydrophilic: absorbs water and dries quickly, Withstands very high temperatures when washing and ironing, Unique texture from the thick-and-thin pattern of the fibers, Interiors: tablecloths, napkins, wallpaper, Linen has been used for clothing for at least ten thousand years, Similar to cotton in its properties (both are natural, cellulosic fibers), Linen fibers have a silky luster and a cool feel, Fibers are in the stem of a plant (therefore called a “bast” fiber), Long fibers from 6 to 20 inches make linen even smoother than cotton, Conducts heat away from the body better than cotton, Linen is a bast fiber from the flax plant, The fibers are harvested primarily by hand. Linen fibers are six to twenty inches long. might be 40 lea, and give 40x300 = 12,000 yards per pound. The word linen comes from the Latin name for flax. Hemp takes dye beautifully. One of the oldest textile fibers, linen fragments have been found in prehistoric lake dwellings and ancient Egyptian mummy wraps. The earliest written documentation of a linen industry comes from the Linear B tablets of Pylos, Greece, where linen is depicted as an ideogram and also written as "li-no" (Greek: λίνον, linon), and the female linen workers are cataloged as "li-ne-ya" (λίνεια, lineia). This is achieved through retting. © 2021 - Textile School. Reply to comment. The flax plant (Linum usitatissimum) provides the fiber that is spun into linen. Linen is a bast fiber, which means it comes from the inner part of the plant. What's in a Flax Fiber? The term "linens" refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waist-shirts, lingerie (a cognate with linen), and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. The couche is heavily dusted with flour which is rubbed into the pores of the fabric. It’s also used in handkerchiefs, and fine fashions – everything from dresses to suits. Linen fabric has been used for table coverings, bed coverings and clothing for centuries. Flax and hemp are the most commonly available bast fibers prepared for spinning. Approximately 70% of linen production in the 1990s was for apparel textiles, whereas in the 1970s only about 5% was used for fashion fabrics. The word linen is of West Germanic origin[3] and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linón). There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. (2011). The flax stalks are processed using traditional cotton machinery; however, the finished fibers often lose the characteristic linen look. [17] When the tomb of the Pharaoh Ramses II, who died in 1213 BC, was discovered in 1881, the linen wrappings were in a state of perfect preservation after more than 3000 years. [19][20], By the Middle Ages, there was a thriving trade in German flax and linen. The direct result of his good work was the establishment, under statute, of the Board of Trustees of the Linen Manufacturers of Ireland in the year 1711. These seeds are used for next year’s planting or are used to make other products like linseed oil. In early summer it produces blue flowers and it is harvested in late summer after the plant has reached its full height of 2 to 3 feet. Linen shares many of the advantages of cotton. A blend of linen, rayon and linen, cotton in a variety of bright and iridescent colors. Linen (/ˈlɪnən/) is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Flax is a filament fiber harvested from flax plants that when made into fabric, is called linen. "Bast fibers are typically coarse natural fibers, meaning they aren't going to be super soft initially," says Sarah Wang, the head of research and development with Tricol-Everplush. This category presents Linen Fabric, Linen, from China Bast Fiber Fabric suppliers to global buyers., page 15 Warping Systems and Selvedges and it’s types, Industrial enzymes in textile production and application, An exclusive information portal on textiles. The flax fibers are separated into smaller bundles called hands, which are hackled, or combed, and arranged into ribbons of long fibers. Linen wrinkles very easily, and thus some more formal garments require ironing often, in order to maintain perfect smoothness. Cotton, bamboo, and human-extruded plant fibers, such as lyocell, are not bast fibers. Linen is a bast fiber. Bast fibers are the fibrous part of the plant just below the bark. This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together. A linen handkerchief, pressed and folded to display the corners, was a standard decoration of a well-dressed man's suit during most of the first part of the 20th century. An alternate production method is known as “cottonizing” which is quicker and requires less equipment. Harvesting flax is mostly done by hand. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. Linen is more expensive than cotton and high-quality linen is considered a luxury fabric. The linen fiber is not to be confused with bed linen, although the two are connected. For example, a linen cap worn by Emperor Charles V was carefully preserved after his death in 1558.[25]. Flax is an annual plant, which means it … In early summer it produces blue flowers and it is harvested in late summer after the plant has reached its full height of 2 to 3 feet. Linen is ideal for lightweight suits, table and bedclothes, and furnishings. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates. This category presents 2021 Linen Fabric,Linen, Products from China Bast Fiber Fabric suppliers. Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton. (3) The metric unit, Nm, is more commonly used in continental Europe. Fine white linen is also worn by angels in the New Testament (Revelation 15:6). After the fibers have been separated and processed, they are typically spun into yarns and woven or knit into linen textiles. The stem consists essentially of a central woody core and a surrounding cortex which contains the flax or bast fibers. It has a long staple (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.[39]. In addition, slubs do not compromise the integrity of the fabric, and therefore they are not viewed as a defect. Linen is strong, absorbent and dries more quickly than cotton. Linen comes from flax, which is a bast fiber. Online Etymology Dictionary. This process, called retting, helps loosen the fibers from the core of the stalk. In England and then in Germany, industrialization and machine production replaced manual work and production moved from the home to new factories. The fine yarns used in handkerchiefs, etc. In 1923, the German city Bielefeld issued banknotes printed on linen. June 3, 2016 - 7:58 am . This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Bamboo is a natural fiber that can be processed either as a naturally occurring bast fiber (bamboo linen) or a regenerated manufactured fiber (bamboo rayon/viscose or lyocell). The Lower Rhine was a center of linen making in the Middle Ages. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention. [24], Linen was also an important product in the American colonies, where it was brought over with the first settlers and became the most commonly used fabric and a valuable asset for colonial households. All Rights Reserved. The standard measure of bulk linen yarn is the "lea", which is the number of yards in a pound of linen divided by 300. It has been found in ancient tombs and was used in burial shrouds for Egyptian pharaohs. [33], In Judaism, the only law concerning which fabrics may be interwoven together in clothing concerns the mixture of linen and wool, called shaatnez; it is restricted in Deuteronomy 22:11 "Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together" and Leviticus 19:19, "...neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." Flax is planted in spring. [10] To the southwest, in ancient Mesopotamia, flax was domesticated and linen was produced.