Working hours … To understand these changes in societies and people’s lives over time, and the substantial differences we see in the world today, it is crucial to measure and study how much time people spend working. Bend it like Beckham: Hours and wages across forty-eight countries in 1900 (No. Your employees must be given at least 11 consecutive hours of daily rest and at least 24 hours of uninterrupted weekly rest every 7 days, over a reference period of 2 weeks. The Organisation of Working Time Act 1997 states that the maximum average working week for many employees cannot exceed 48 hours. But researchers like Huberman and Minns (2007)23 have been able to fill some of the gap by reconstructing long-run trends for a selection of countries. We see that the same richer countries with lower working hours we noted before — like Germany and Switzerland — have very high labor productivity, both at nearly 70$/h. Working Age Population. We see that in the chart here, with GDP per capita on the horizontal axis and annual working hours per worker on the vertical axis. To reconstruct the trends in later years, Huberman and Minns pulled together data from the International Labor Organization, the work of peer researchers, and other sources.25. Germany, for example, moved far to the right as its GDP per capita increased more than 10-fold (from $4,644 to $47,556), and far to the bottom as working hours decreased by nearly half (from 2,427 hours to 1,354 hours each year).10. Working time and rest. Working Hours in the Philippines Normal Working Hours. For a discussion of the relationship between productivity growth, economic growth, and working hours, see Boppart, T. and P. Krusell (2020) Labor Supply in the Past, Present, and Future: A Balanced-Growth Perspective. They found for example that in 1870, Colombia, Uruguay and Brazil had similar average working hours per worker as the US. Working hours have decreased dramatically in the last 150 years for many countries. The per person measure corresponds to working hours per worker multiplied by the employment rate. We gain further confidence in these conclusions when they are echoed by research that focuses only on more standardized, comparable sources for a necessarily smaller set of countries, as in the work by Bick, Fuchs-Schündeln, and Lagakos (2018). You can read more about this here. The chart here shows the growth in labor productivity, not just for agriculture but for the entire economy. The primary way to measure working hours is with surveys, but the data can have limitations that are important to understand. Government entities are not governed by the Labour Law and they operate for 7 hours daily. To understand working hours the key metric is labor productivity: the economic return for one hour of work. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. If the maximum number of hours (not including overtime) are less than 40, the employer and employee must try to fix the hours so they are worked on no more than five days of the week. In contrast, the countries toward the top-left of this chart have far lower labor productivity — Cambodia, for example, is at only 2$/h — and thus workers there need to work many more hours to compensate. I worked for some factories in Dongguan manufacturing electronics and accessories. Although France is known for having a statutory 35-hour working week, workers actually put in an estimated 40.4 hours on average. Help us do this work by making a donation. This is substantial progress, but there is still huge inequality across countries, and progress still to make. The chart shows that average working hours declined dramatically for workers in early-industrialized economies over the last 150 years. Add country Toward a Framework for Time Use, Welfare, and Household Centric Economic Measurement. These differences are due to the use of different underlying sources and methods. Nations that work the most hours on average: In terms of the nations with the highest working hours, Qatar takes the top spot. Only covering workers above a certain age means that any child laborers are excluded. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics. Philippine laws, however, do not prohibit work done for less than eight hours. The decline in annual working hours described above has come from fewer working hours each day, as well as fewer working days each week and fewer working weeks in the year. Research from the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap report based on an OECD study of 29 countries showed that men got off relatively lightly, clocking up 7 hours and 47 minutes a day. The chart shows that days of vacation and holidays increased over the period from 1870–2000. Unlike hours actually worked, paid or contractual hours typically include some time not spent working, such as during sick leave, and fail to include time spent working that wasn’t paid or planned, such as overtime. Technological innovation — defined broadly here to include physical machines as well as ideas, knowledge, and processes — makes it possible for each worker to become much more productive. We also see what the world misses out on when exceptionally talented people, including all the brilliant but underprivileged people in today’s poorest countries, don’t have the opportunity to realize their potential.15. Here, the working time per worker was around 2456 hours per year, which is just under 47 hours per week and just under 6.7 hours per anniversary. There are at least nine holidays a year, including local and official ones. Economic prosperity in different places across our world today is vastly unequal. Easily get the exact number of working (business) days in 2019 -- along with the number of working hours per month, quarter and annually. The data show that it is workers in poorer countries who tend to work more, and sometimes a lot more, than those in richer countries. Below is a simplified data model as the key relationship is a summarized Periodic Fact table containing hours worked by person/charge #/pay period with a many-to-one relationship with a Pay Period dimension … The statistics is important for monitoring working conditions and analysing economic developments. Working less means being able to spend time becoming more educated, or simply enjoying more leisure time. The state’s average full-time worker spent 40.7 hours a week at work in the August 2016 quarter, 0.8 hours less than 10 years earlier but still slightly more than the national average of 40.6 hours. Bick, A., Brüggemann, B., and Fuchs-Schündeln, N. (2019) Hours Worked in Europe and the United States: New Data, New Answers. Activities also include unpaid household work, school, leisure time, eating, and sleeping. The yearly working hours of a job is the average hours paid for a job a year excluded overtime hours and leave hours through holiday, reduction of working hours and general recognized feast-days. Averaging may be balanced out over a 4, 6 or 12 month period depending on the circumstances. The difference between sources in 2000 is at most 200 hours, while the historical data from Huberman and Minns shows that from 1870 to 2000 annual working hours in France decreased by 1,725 hours (from 3,168 to 1,443 hours). The technological, economic, and social structures in richer countries have enabled workers there to produce more while working less. In many countries today, people work much less than in the past 150 years. This makes sense: as people’s incomes rise they can afford more of the things they enjoy, including more leisure and less time spent working. Article 65 of the UAE Labour Law identifies the normal working hours for the private sector as 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week. It means that residents of today’s poorer countries like Cambodia and Myanmar — and also of today’s richer countries in the past when they were poor — are not just consumption poor, often unable to afford necessities like food and medicine. The evidence presented here comes from decades of work from economic historians and other researchers. But we do have evidence from other historical records from 1870–1900 that in many of those countries workers also used to work extremely long hours.3, For those countries with long-run data in this chart we can see three distinct periods: From 1870–1913 there was a relatively slow decline; then from 1913–1938 the decline in hours steepened in the midst of the powerful sociopolitical, technological, and economic changes that took shape with World War I, the Great Depression, and the lead-up to World War II; and then after an uptick in hours during and just after World War II, the decline in hours continued for many countries, albeit at a slower pace and with large differences between countries.4. These both draw on national accounts estimates when available, but they can differ in the other sources they use and their method of aggregation.27. As the economists Diane Coyle and Leonard Nakamura explain, the study of working hours is crucial not only to measure macroeconomic productivity, but also to measure economic well-being beyond economic output. Average usual weekly hours worked on the main job. 2. The declines in the length of the work day and the number of working days have been driven by several factors, including increases in productivity and the adoption of regulations that limit working hours. The chart currently shows data for the latest available year, but you can explore this relationship over time since 1950 by using the blue time slider at the bottom of the chart. Before collective bargaining and worker protection laws, there was a financial incentive for a company to maximize the return on expensive machinery by having long hour… between 7am - 7pm). Says Harriet Scott, MD of Ginger Research: When asked what would make them more productive, HALF of British workers said a pay rise, 28 percent flexible hours, and 27 percent four-day week. Working hours per day : Enter the number of hours the employee works per day. Employees can work more than 48 hours a week as long as the working time does not exceed 48 hours per week when it is averaged out over the 17 week period. Only covering resident workers means that any cross-border workers are excluded. on an average, 27.75 hours per week. According to a nationwide survey, the average British office employee manages to get through just 3 hours of actual work per day, despite working longer hours than anywhere else in Europe. The data on working hours isn’t perfect, and it’s important to understand the limitations, but it can still tell us a lot about our lives and the world. To get the most comprehensive perspective on working hours possible, many countries aggregate data from these surveys with data from other sources — such as censuses, tax records, and social security registers — in an economic measurement framework called national accounts. The Malaysian Employment Act defines the work weeks as 48 hours, with a maximum of 8 working hours per day and 6 working days per week. National accounts, and the surveys they rely on, are standardized to a degree across countries, which can facilitate international comparisons.21, But these comparisons often have limitations because many countries still implement the methods in different ways. Where does the data come from, and how can researchers reconstruct long-run trends? That accumulates to about 2246 hours per year. Huberman, M. and Minns, C. (2007) The times they are not changin’: Days and hours of work in Old and New Worlds, 1870–2000. In Mexico, it is mandated by law that the maximum working hours is 48 per week. As we show in detail in our entry on Crop Yields, innovations like better machinery, crop varieties, fertilizers, and land management have enabled farmers to be much more productive. Since the Industrial Revolution people in many countries have become richer, and working hours have decreased dramatically over these last 150 years. Because it is so central, looking closely at how much time we spend working can tell us a lot about our lives and the societies we live in. For instance, countries might bring together different data in their national accounts, or aggregate it differently. How do hours worked vary with income? Journal of Political Economy. 2 vols. There are two measures of hours worked namely paid hours worked by The denominator value is based on a table housing the # of days for the pay period. In a context where precise comparisons of similar countries is important, smaller differences between sources can really matter. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Here we present the data on working hours. The data is shown one country at a time — with France currently selected. Working Age Population. In this way, the working hours of 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week are called “statutory working hours”. While Greeks still average long hours, working 41.2 hours per week, it is the United Kingdom that has the longest working week. In a context where we want to focus on a larger scale — such as the long-run historical trends we see in the chart — the limitations of the sources are not large enough to undermine our conclusions. Coyle, D. and Nakamura, L. I. Through often painstaking effort, researchers have been able to find and piece together the relevant historical records that do exist. USDA Economic Research Report 189. Toggle navigation Toggle search box Calendar-12.com 12 months a year, day by day. It’s also clear that these differences between sources are quite small when compared to the huge changes over the longer run. The average may be calculated over one of the following periods: Work is a central part of our lives. You can read more about this here. You can find more details and links to our sources in the ‘Sources’ tab of the chart. Have the provisions of Sections 38 and 40 of the Employment Act explained to you. This has large implications for the way we think about the economic progress made in the last two centuries and the nature of inequality between countries today. This can be extended to 10 hours per day, if within six months (or 24 weeks) the overall average working time does not exceed eight hours per day. The times they are not changin’: Days and hours of work in Old and New Worlds, 1870–2000. Awards, enterprise agreements and other registered agreements set out any: maximum ordinary hours in a day, week, fortnight or month, minimum ordinary hours in a day, times of the day ordinary hours can be worked (eg. Zooming in to the last 70 years and looking at other countries beyond those who industrialized early, the data reveals a continued decline in working hours for many countries but also large differences between countries. In our first post in the series, we discuss how increases in labor productivity have driven a rise in incomes and a decrease in working hours. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average American works 8.8 hours every day. By 1940 the typical work schedule was 8 hours a day, 5 days a week. Working less means being able to spend time becoming more educated, or simply enjoying leisure time. ; Be informed of your daily working hours, number of working days in each week and weekly rest day. We explore how it differs across countries and over time and how these differences matter for people’s lives. Over a four week period, Malcolm’s work pattern is as follows: Week 1 – worked 21 hours . Of course, the data is not perfect — as we explain in a forthcoming post, measuring working hours with accuracy is difficult, and surveys and historical records have limitations, so estimates of working hours spanning centuries necessarily come with a margin of error. If workers can produce more with each hour of work, it becomes possible for them to work less. You can easily calculate the average of per day/month/quarter/hour in excel with a pivot table as follows: 1. A study by Michael Huberman and Frank Lewis reconstructed estimates of working hours in 1870 and 1900 for 48 countries across six continents using data from worker records kept by individual business establishments. Journal of Political Economy. All employers must keep complete and accurate records that show the hours an employee has worked each day, and retain these records (such as detailed logs) for 36 months after the work is finished. How do they do it? The study, of 1000 British office workers, found a staggering 64 percent of respondents said that they believe they could fit their day’s work into a shorter period of time. They drew from a collection of records published by the US Department of Labor in 1900, and found substantial variation, but very high working hours for many non-industrialized countries. According to official statistics on working hours in Canada, employed Canadians worked an average of 36.6 hours per week in 2012, with significant variation depending on age, gender and location. Full-time Part-time employment. Hence, changes in employment patterns — such as the historical rise of female participation in paid employment in these countries — mean that changes in hours per worker do not translate directly into changes in hours per person. In this chart we have taken the original data published by Huberman & Minns (2007) and extended coverage using an updated vintage of the Penn World Table (PWT), which is in turn based on the same underlying source that Huberman and Minns used for all data since 1950, the Total Economy Database. By organizations such as the United Nations, International Labor Organization (ILO), OECD, and Eurostat. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Hours actually worked means hours spent directly on work and excludes things like annual leave, sick leave, public holidays, meal breaks, and commuting time. Loosely enforced labor laws mean that private sector employees can even work for extra hours without extra pay. Although further reductions in work time largely took the form of increases in vacations, holidays, sick days, personal leave, and earlier retirement, time diary studies suggest that the work day has continued to trend downward less than 8 hours a day.”. Javascript must be enabled for the correct page display, 45 mins chatting to colleagues about non-work-related subjects. They are not permitted to work between the hours … The Next Generation of the Penn World Table. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. There are two measures of hours worked namely paid hours worked by employees and usual hours worked by persons in employment, whether paid or not. Week 2 – worked 60 hours Average per day/month/quarter/hour with Pivot Table. As we ask in another post, “what would have been the chances for Steve Jobs if he was born in the Central African Republic?” No matter how hard he worked or how smart he was, it is difficult to imagine that Steve Jobs would’ve been able to realize his potential with such a steep mountain of inequality to climb. A more holistic framework for measuring ‘progress’ needs to consider changes in how people are allowed to allocate their time over multiple activities, among which paid work is only one.7. The Average number of work days in a month is 21.62 40 work hours in a work week X 52 weeks in a year = 2,080 hours divided by 12 months in a year = 173 the monthly average of working hours in a month divided by 8 working hours per work day = 21.62 the average number of working day/month. The extra 900 hours for Cambodian workers means longer work days and many fewer days off. We discuss these and other key drivers behind working hours trends across countries and time in a series of forthcoming posts.6. This system allows workers to freely decide the start and end times within the range of agreed working hours (i.e., still keeping an average 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week). It was a medium size enterprise. 126.4K views View 11 Upvoters FTPT employment based on national definitions. As we explain in detail below, the research on the history of working hours shows that this is not the case. FTPT employment based on a common definition. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. However, as Fogel’s (2000) estimates in Table 5 show, between 1880 and 1995 the amount of work per day fell nearly in half, allowing leisure time to more than triple. Surveys are the primary way to collect data on working hours. Image: Eurostat Employees in the UK were found to work 42.3 hours per week on average, Eurostat data shows. There are special restrictions, or rather protection provisions, for women in the industrial or agricultural sector. PWT sources its working hours data from The Conference Board’s Total Economy Database (TED). Research suggests that in an eight-hour day, the average worker is only productive for two hours and 53 minutes. Explorations in Economic History. A quarter of those polled thought working from home would improve their performance, while 18 percent said a quieter office would do the trick. But life can also look similar, as you see in the pictures of the homes, computers, and phones of people on similar income levels in the two countries. But as a trade-off, it was only possible to look at a small selection of richer countries. The majority of fulltime (voltijd) jobs in the Netherlands are between 36-40 hours a week, or seven to eight hours a day, five days a week.Some companies have a 40 hour working week instead of the standard 38 hours, in which case employees receive more salary for more hours worked.Another way employers may compensate higher weekly hours is by increasing annual holiday leave … The Organisation of Working Time Act 1997 states that the maximum average working week for many employees cannot exceed 48 hours. A standard Dutch working week is 38 hours. The maximum for those working in hotels, restaurants, and certain other industries is nine hours per day. But we see that today those extreme working hours have been roughly cut in half. The data on working hours shows, for example, that rather than working more than ever — as is so commonly believed — people in many countries today work much less than in the past 150 years. It means they are also leisure poor: because productivity is low and they must work so much just to scrape by, they can’t afford to spend much time improving their condition, becoming educated, or simply enjoying leisure time. This does not mean that a working week can never exceed 48 hours; it is the average that is important. Average working hours are calculated over a ‘reference’ period, normally 17 weeks. Those in the mining and quarrying industry work the longest hours (42.0), while the shortest working week is to be found in the education sector (38.1). You can add or remove countries by clicking Add country on the chart.. We show annual totals, so the trends account for changes in both the length of working days as well as the number of days worked through the year. At the most concrete level, labor productivity captures things like the number of breads that a baker bakes in an hour, or the number of cars factory workers assemble in an hour. You can look at other countries by clicking ‘Change country’ on the chart, but note that not all sources publish data for every country. use only labor force surveys; the others all rely primarily on national accounts data, but which nonetheless still have differences. 19-11. This was an impressive feat of reconstruction, but historical records like this do have limitations. It is the same chart as above, except now countries’ single data points have become lines, connecting observations over time from 1950 until today. The study, by Ginger Research, found a culture of long working hours persists, with almost half (46 percent) of British workers admitting they routinely stayed at work longer than they need to because everyone else does. Average annual labor hours per worker in 2017 Rank Country Working hours 1 Cambodia 2,455.55 2 Myanmar 2,437.86 3 Mexico 2,255.00 4 Malaysia 2,238.27 5 Singapore 2,237.73 6 Bangladesh 2,232.35 We show annual totals, so the trends account for changes in both the length of working days as well as the number of days worked through the year. While this may sound exhausting, many nurses enjoy working longer hours in a day and fewer days in a week. In the chart you can compare annual working hours data from these four datasets. estimates 1,642 hours of work for French workers, OECD estimates 1,558 hours, PWT estimates 1,550 hours, and Huberman and Minns estimates 1,443 hours. And increases in productivity in turn help drive both increases in incomes and decreases in working hours.12, A prime example of how tech innovation drives productivity growth is agriculture. Labor Supply in the Past, Present, and Future: A Balanced-Growth Perspective, Agricultural Productivity Growth in the United States: Measurement, Trends, and Drivers. 1229). There are huge inequalities within and across countries, but substantial progress has been made. This seems to align pretty well with the 3h per day from the workplace study … Select the original table, and then click the Insert > PivotTabe. Incidence of employment by usual weekly hours … The four highlighted countries exemplify how working hours have decreased at the same time that average incomes have increased. The 35-hour limit is … It is something we do almost every day, for much of the day, for decades on end. This working week average should be calculated over a four-month period. Of the survey types, these provide the most comprehensive perspective, covering hours actually worked in all economic sectors as part of both formal and informal employment, full-time and part-time, as well as self-employment and unpaid family work.16 But labor force surveys only cover residents of a country above a certain age (usually 15), which depending on the country might exclude a non-trivial number of workers.17. In Cambodia the average worker puts in 2,456 hours each year, nearly 900 more hours than in Switzerland (1,590 hours) at the bottom-right of the chart. Men have a longer working week than women, working on average 41.0 hours compared with 39.3 hours for women. The working week runs from Monday to Saturday, and employees must not work more than 48 hours per week. The chart here shows average working hours since 1870 for a selection of countries that industrialized early. Image … (2019). 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