Health educators could also benefit their population by facilitating communication between teachers and parents. Campaign's school idea and resource kits improve determinants of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity among fourth- and fifth-grade children, Growing Healthy Kids: K–2 teacher training program, Implementation matters: a review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation, How prevention curricula are taught under real-world conditions: types of and reasons for teacher curriculum adaptations, Effects of a school-based nutrition program diffused throughout a large urban community on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption, Promoting children's health through physically active math classes: a pilot study, Effect of low-cost, teacher-directed classroom intervention on elementary students' physical activity, Putting physical activity where it fits in the school day: preliminary results of the ABC (Activity Bursts in the Classroom) for Fitness program, Developing a coordinated school health approach to child obesity prevention in Appalachia: results of focus groups with teachers, parents, and students, Physical activity opportunities during the school day: classroom teachers' perceptions of using activity breaks in the classroom, Teachers' perceptions about children's movement and learning in early childhood education programmes, Health Behavior Theory for Public Health: Principles, Foundations, and Applications, Exploring nutrition education resources and barriers, and nutrition knowledge in teachers in California, The impact of standards-based reform on teachers: the case of “No Child Left Behind”, What is measured is treasured: the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act on nonassessed subjects, The views of stakeholders on the role of the primary school in preventing childhood obesity: a qualitative systematic review, Teachers' talk about health, self and the student “body”, Obesity prevention opinions of stakeholders: a qualitative study. During the course, it emphasizes on the metaphysical stance, methodological grounds, quality concerns and ethical issues Many teachers developed enjoyment for nutrition education in part due to their students' excitement and positive attitude toward the topic. One possible limitation of adaptation is that teachers will include unreliable and inaccurate nutrition information, so future studies should examine the balance of fidelity and adaptation with student outcomes. Teachers made efforts to adapt the provided curriculum to their classroom, personalizing it for their students and adding additional learning strategies. So I think that, you know, five minutes of movement break is huge. While nurses can relate to the phenomenological approach because they see it as sharing the values of nursing, this may not be sufficient on its own to start conducting this kind of research. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook, Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods, Doing Naturalistic Inquiry: A Guide to Methods, Effects of a nutrition education program on the dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge of second-grade and third-grade students, Teaching healthful food choices to elementary school students and their parents: the Nutrition Detectives Program, The CATCH Kids Club: a pilot after-school study for improving elementary students' nutrition and physical activity, Evaluation of a K–2 elementary nutrition education program, Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs, Power Play! The meaning of the word phenomenon is to be further elaborated. Rather, teachers felt that the fact that the curriculum was organized, simple, and easy to use improved their confidence. I mean, it definitely ties in with that.” (Theresa), “So I feel like I can encourage them here, but ultimately I feel like it's the parents’ choice to buy what they buy at the store.” (Sue). … I think that is pretty influential for them.” Most believed that the various roles they played positively impacted their students. Some strategies for health educators when creating interventions include keeping material short to balance time constraints, specifically contacting teachers about their available nutrition education time and creating lessons based on this estimate, using familiar educational terms, providing specific and clear instructions, and making activities simple and brief. Max van Manen (2007) wrote that phenomenology There are quite successful applications of phenomenology to be found elsewhere, applications that can offer substantial theoretical and methodological support to qualitative researchers. seem fundamental in phenomenological research to make things vivid to readers about the research report. Phenomenology is also termed as the study of phenomenon. When it is feasible, health educators should work together with classroom teachers at the program development stage to better address teachers' needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for elementary school students. Because if we're seeing that small of a change now, what could it be in like two years or something?”. Although evaluation and analysis of curriculum are not within the scope of this article, the type of curriculum likely shaped the unique nutrition education experiences of the teachers. The transcendental phenomenology approach by Moustakas, adapted from Husserl, focuses on the participants' given descriptions to generate an essence of the lived experience, as opposed to hermeneutical phenomenology which more strongly relies on the researcher's interpretations of what the lived experience means. … If you have better nutrition, then in turn,  hopefully you'll do better at school.” (Carrie), “I think it's just as important [as other subjects]. 1970s, phenomenological psychologists established a praxis, which is a methodological realisation of the phenomenological philosophical attitude (Stones, 1988). The belief in existence is an immanent part of our consciouness. As demonstrated in this study, teachers' confidence was related to the simplicity of the provided curriculum. Data was collected using audiotaping of interviews and field notes. This is called determination of essences , or eidetic reduction. Both physical activity and nutrition research has demonstrated that when teachers model positive behaviors, such as participating in a physical activity program or consuming fruit, students are more likely to perform those behaviors.2,3. Health educators should conduct a needs assessment not only with their target population for intervention but also with the target sample of teachers expected to deliver the intervention. research about the subjective experience of balancing the constant demands of caregiving while raising a family. Teachers experienced nutrition education through various barriers, the strongest of which was time. Although there is no standard for a minimum number of participants in qualitative research because its purpose is not to generalize, previous experts have identified a sample size of 10 as adequate, generally when extensive detail has been collected to saturation.23 In this study, teachers were no longer recruited once saturation had been reached, in which no new information was provided to aid in the understanding of the phenomenon. Paula shared, “We've said it's [nutrition is] important, we need to be teaching these things, but when push comes to shove, they're gonna have you do the math over the nutrition.”. The most commonly reported roles were educator, role model, and coach. Teachers perceived that they played many roles in nutrition education, which is supported by previous research that teachers perceive themselves as educators, role models, advocates, and motivators.18 Our study reveals additional essential roles inside and outside the classroom, including recruiting other school staff into wellness efforts. The general intent of programming is to improve knowledge and behavioral predictors that will lead to improved dietary and/or physical activity behavior. Getting deep, rich data from multiple interviews of the same small sample of particpants is considered more important than the actual number. Teachers all followed the same interactive, expert-created curriculum kit, specific for their grade level, which they believed had unique qualities that engaged and improved student learning compared to other curriculum. As the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in the United States, so have nutrition education interventions. ’ Not all health research questions that seek to describe patient or professional experiences will be best met by a phenomenological approach; for example, service evaluations may be more suited to a descriptive qualitative design, where highly structured questions aim to find out participant’s views, rather than their lived experience. Other teachers felt that more efforts needed to be made with nutrition education in a broader sense rather than just their individual role: Outside of the world we hear the big push of health and obesity and all these things and how they're important. Assist schools in creating a nutrition fair for parents, in which teachers can get quality face-to-face time to show parents what students are learning and talk to them about nutrition, while having the support of expert health educators nearby. Briefly, Growing Healthy Kids, created by Extension Educators, is a 10-hour interactive nutrition and physical activity kit delivered each year during a 2- to 3-week period beginning in kindergarten.25 Each grade received an age-appropriate kit designed for that grade level, containing 5 units with 2 to 5 nutrition lessons and one physical activity break in each unit. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Nutrition and Health Sciences, Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease, Physical activity across the curriculum (PAAC): a randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children, A novel approach for increasing fruit consumption in children, Nutrition education intervention by teachers may promote fruit and vegetable consumption in Italian students, A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children, Evaluation of a school-based teen obesity prevention minimal intervention, Evaluation of the Food and Agriculture Organization's global school-based nutrition education initiative, Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH), in schools of Hyderabad, India, Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the statewide dissemination of a school-based physical activity and nutrition curriculum: “Exercise Your Options”, Overweight prevention implemented by primary school teachers: a randomized controlled trial, Barriers and facilitators for teachers' implementation of curricular component of the boost intervention targeting adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, Urban health educators' perspectives and practices regarding school nutrition education policies, School-based health promotion intervention: parent and school staff perspectives, Factors influencing the contribution of staff to health education in schools, Elementary school personnel's perceptions on childhood obesity: pervasiveness and facilitating factors, Obesity prevention in early adolescence: student, parent, and teacher views, Head start teachers' perceptions of children's eating behavior and weight status in the context of food scarcity, Understanding the state of nutrition education in the Head Start classroom: a qualitative approach, The role of classroom teachers in nutrition and physical education, The Possibility of Transcendental Philosophy, Ideas: General Introduction to Phenomenology, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, Growing healthy kids through healthy communities, Growing Healthy Kids: a school enrichment nutrition education program to promote healthy behaviors for children, Research Methods in Health. Teachers generally receive training on new nutrition education materials with the goal of increasing program fidelity and confidence, as was the case with the curriculum provided in this study.5,40 Surprisingly, though, teachers did not express confidence in relation to being trained. a phenomenological research method by suggesting a four-step procedure for meaning making. In order to understand the meaning of phenomenon in the context of phenomenology one has to understand that things only give appearance in the consciousness and they are never fully given. Quotes presented throughout the results section use pseudonyms to protect the identity of participants. This has a specialized meaning; by saying that consciousness is always intentional , it means that consciousness is always of something and never of nothing. We use Mailchimp as our marketing platform. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. Commonly identified reliability techniques utilized in this study include the recording of detailed field notes, an audio recorder for accuracy, and intercoder agreement from the senior author and an outside coder, with the latter technique being the most critical process of reliability.23,30 The 2 additional coders analyzed data independently and then met with the first author to discuss codes. Some teachers believed that 3 weeks with the kit was enough time, because they expressed that their district technically only provides 2 weeks to teach nutrition. In this analysis one finds certain themes or underlying currents that are to be focussed. Sue expressed, “I feel like I can encourage them here, but ultimately I feel like it's the parents' choice to buy what they buy at the store.” However, this structure instilled a responsibility to make additional efforts to compensate for homes that may not have the resources or may have barriers to healthy choices. However , in all modes of awareness, the object remains the same , the same tree is the object of your consciousness in all these modes. Previous findings have supported that adaptation normally occurs and can aid implementation success.42,43 Allowing adaptation can increase teacher willingness to deliver nutrition education by providing them with the flexibility necessary for the classroom environment.10 Outcomes such as improved attitudes toward fruits and vegetables have been demonstrated with this freedom.44 Although fidelity of implementation is important for evaluation and predicted outcomes, adaptation has the potential to improve the educational experience by making material more meaningful for students, targeting students not performing at grade level, and incorporating strategies for different learning styles. (Paula). This concept is cited by a number of behavior change theories such as the information–motivation–behavioral skills model and theory of planned behavior.51 Health educators should therefore increase efforts to motivate teachers to incorporate more nutrition and physical activity education in their classrooms. Several studies solely explored teachers' perspectives; however, these studies were conducted in Head Start or preschool classrooms, different from elementary school environments.16,17 One study explored the role of elementary classroom teachers in nutrition and physical education within low-income schools but was strongly quantitative in presentation, lacking depth and warranting further exploration in this area.18 Elementary school classrooms are an ideal environment for nutrition education delivery due to the time that students spend at school and the number of youth attending public school. So I'm in charge of running our quarterly challenges that are trying to promote healthier  lifestyles. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators should work with classroom teachers at the program design, implementation, and evaluation stages of curriculum development to better address needs and facilitate the delivery of high-quality nutrition education for students. Incorporate a parent component into school-based programming. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Sue expressed, “I think because they're super excited, I'm super excited … it kind of is like a domino effect.” Teachers demonstrated this positive attitude toward nutrition education when delivering nutrition lessons through their body language, expressions, animation, and voice. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Interviews usually are very lengthy, and last for an hour or two. Specific questions were added as the interview process progressed in response to developing themes. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY INTO HOW STUDENTS EXPERIENCE AND UNDERSTAND THE UNIVERSITY PRESIDENCY by Kahler B. Schuemann A dissertation submitted to the Graduate College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Leadership, Research and Technology Western Michigan University April 2014 All teachers reported integrating some type of supplementary education or activity in relation to nutrition and/or physical activity. For , the inference that there is a horse standing in front of you is not immanent in your single perception of a thing. Because they really want to put themselves to be like their teacher or that role.” (Paula), “I'm our wellness champ. However , this purely phenomenological is always embedded in the concrete space time time events , therefore search for the purely phenomenological starts from these experiences. Some suggestions to help health educators facilitate communication between parents and teachers include the following: Help teachers open up the lines of communication by providing them with parent newsletters concerning nutrition program(s) in their child's classroom and what their child is learning about. The purpose is to describe the commonalities of the experience. (Paula), Most teachers believed that these roles were aligned with the roles they believed they should be playing in nutrition education and that these roles were necessities for their students. Research comparing a nutrition education intervention delivered by classroom teachers versus guest nutritionists demonstrated that teachers were more effective at improving students' healthy eating behaviors.4 Specific outcomes from interventions have included increased fruit and vegetable intake, behavioral intentions for healthy eating, physical activity, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations regarding healthy eating, as well as decreased sedentary activity and consumption of sweets. All teachers believed that nutrition education was important for their students. All interviews were audiotaped for accuracy. If I look at a computer from four sides, I can think about the infinite possible perspectives from which I can possibly see a computer. Final identification of these themes were performed by rereading the complete transcripts to verify that the theme and accompanying invariant constituents were explicitly expressed and compatible with the participants' words. Teachers experienced nutrition education through a triadic interaction of positive influences between themselves, their students, and the provided curriculum that was significant in forming their perceptions of nutrition education (Figure 1). Health educators could work one on one with teachers to identify internal motivators or address larger groups of teachers in motivational workshops with the subject matter. That common tree is called noema in phenomenology and different modes of getting awareness about this tree are called noesis. The home environment was another barrier. Phenomenology, as a family of methodologies, can address a variety of topical research questions that consider subjective experiences and meanings. So , while doing a phenomenological investigation , one is not concerned about the existence of an object of consciousness. They shouldn't be staying in one spot.” (Paula), “… they're only five and six years old. Teachers did express that they would like to dedicate more time to teaching nutrition; however, they did not believe that it necessitated the same amount of time as other subjects. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. … I think it helps them understand it more because they can see it instead of just like read about it.” The curriculum directly influenced the teachers, with several reporting that its simplicity and ease of use increased their confidence and delivery of the material for students. Health educators creating nutrition interventions should be mindful of the classroom teachers and the potential that they may not be well trained or particularly familiar with the topic of nutrition. Teachers reported that without the kit, if they wanted any activities for their students, they would have to take their already limited time to find these activities on their own. The phenomenological approach is increasingly being utilized as the method for nursing research studies because it is comprised of data … The purpose is to illumine specific experience to identify the phenomena that is perceived by the actors in a particular situation. You should also start to consider and draw inspiration from the way in which phenomenology has been applied outside of the domain of qualitative research. Teachers consistently reported that interactive, hands-on curriculum engaged students and led to demonstrated changes in behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy. Observations were conducted with teachers during their regular nutrition education time to gather direct observational data and better illustrate the overall experience of nutrition education. If I see a profile of a picture and infer from this profile the whole image , it means that I have transcended what is given to my consciousness and I have brought my judgment , my learning from my previous experiences to this perception. Balls, P. (2009) Phenomenology in nursing research: methodology, interviewing and transcribing.Nursing Times; 105: 31, early online publication.. In social research , one finds a phenomenon to study , say how children of grade 10 experience the learning of a certain mathematics topic. But you can certainly do the math  and the reading and the writing with nutrition, you know, teaching nutrition. Research Design: There are many different types of study designs and different research traditions are used in different studies such as narrative research, phenomenological research, grounded research, ethnographic research and case study research etc. Further testing and research on program materials by health educators could benefit classroom teachers. Provide teachers with a quick reference list of tips for communicating with parents. To understand this difference first of all , phenomenology should be differentiated from natural sciences’ research methods. The purpose of this essay is to collect and exhibit a crude paradigmatic clue of doing a hermeneutic phenomenological research. As a research methodology, phenomenology is uniquely positioned to help health professions education (HPE) scholars learn from the experiences of others. Five themes emerged from the teachers' experience of nutrition education in this study, including (1) meaningful roles, (2) importance, (3) perceived influences, (4) supplementary education and motivation, and (5) barriers (Table 2). For example if some one is doing a research on the notion of human soul , one should not be concerned about the existence of human soul; rather one has to think about the way the respondents experience human soul in their consciousness. Carrie described one particular student who had simply become more willing to try fruits and vegetables throughout the year, reflecting, “So even that small of a change of a behavior I think is huge, especially at this age. This study by Frank Siroky used empirical phenomenology, the analysis of interview transcripts. Confidence, on the other hand, improved due to the curriculum provided. A semistructured interview protocol was developed, reviewed by 4 qualitative experts, and edited based on feedback (Table 1). Semistructured interviews were conducted with teachers privately in their regular classroom. Teachers struggled with balancing feelings of importance toward nutrition, their prioritization of core subjects, and the question of whether nutrition needed an equal amount of dedication. Now they take it.” (Karen), “It [the curriculum] engages them more. b This question was added during the interview process in response to developing themes; all teachers addressed this topic. Despite a competing internal dialogue and external barriers, teachers voluntarily expended efforts throughout the school year to maximize an enjoyable nutrition and movement experience for their students and themselves. All teachers from low-income schools had the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in their classrooms.29 Teachers' experience with the curriculum ranged from 2 to 12 years. Research in phenomenology has benefitted from using exceptional cases from pathol-ogy and expertise. Internal motivators included a sense of responsibility and care for students. Such an understanding of an object is also called horizonal understanding. A researcher , while excercising epoche’ holds back , or pockets or brackets all judgments about the physical nature. One can access this content of noema and noesis through reflection. While there are no specific rules when determining an appropriate sample size in qualitative research, for phenomenological studies, Morse (1994) suggests at least six, but others put the range at three to five, maxing out at eight. Teachers were observed on their use of the nutrition education materials, incorporation of their own teaching strategies, attitude and demeanor while teaching, strategies to promote nutrition-related knowledge, behavior, self-efficacy, and arrangement of classroom. I have to look for invariant attributes , things that are essential to my perceiving of a computer. In other words, qualitative research is a study using a naturalistic approach to finding and discovering the Pangertian or understanding of phenomena in a specific context. Becky expressed, “I mean honestly, I can't see myself spending 60 minutes a day on nutrition.”. As demonstrated in this study, teachers care about nutrition education and have insights that could potentially improve intervention delivery. Our findings demonstrate that teachers possess a complex set of experiences and perspectives that are integral in the nutrition education process. The lack of focus groups as a data source may have limited the depth of information; however, 3 data sources were used to triangulate the data. supportive people who provide opportunities, offer direction, and lead by example, combined with practical on-the-job real life work experience, and purposeful development through workshops, institutes, fellowships and other leadership ... academic research library leaders. The curriculum provided a convenience that teachers did not have previously. Grade school staff have noted that lack of physical activity makes it difficult for students to focus, however some believe that providing these breaks will make it difficult to get students back on task, unlike the teachers in this study.48,49. For Giorgi, the operative word in phenomenological research is ‘describe’. Although teachers expressed that they influenced students, they also felt that they had no control over the home environment and that poor habits at home could undo the efforts that they expended for their students. Although data were collected around the time that each teacher normally taught their main nutrition unit, some recollections addressed were experiences from earlier in the school year or from the previous school year and may not have been accurate. 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